Webb County v. Juan C. Garcia, 04-19-00891-CV (Tex. App. – San Antonio, July 22, 2020)
This is a motor vehicle accident case under the Texas Tort Claims Act (“TTCA”) where the San Antonio Court of Appeals affirmed the denial of the County’s plea to the jurisdiction.
Webb County Sheriff’s Deputy Mauro Lopez witnessed Saldivar pass a vehicle from a no-passing lane on a three-lane highway. Deputy Lopez applied his brakes to make a U-turn prior to initiating his lights and siren. The video from Deputy Lopez’s dash camera shows he slowed from 70 miles per hour to 16 miles per hour in seven seconds. During this time, he began moving into the center turn lane, effectively blocking all traffic behind him. This caused traffic behind Lopez to hit their brakes suddenly, which caused an 18-wheeler truck to jackknife. It skidded into the westbound lane, directly into Saldivar’s path. Saldivar’s truck and the 18-wheeler collided, killing Saldivar and all passengers. The families sued and the County filed a plea to the jurisdiction. The plea was denied and the County appealed.
The County asserted Deputy Lopez did not control the 18-wheeler which caused the accident, so no waiver of immunity exists. The TTCA waives immunity if the injury “arises from the operation or use of a motor-driven vehicle”. The TTCA does not define the term “arises from” but case law states it requires a nexus between the operation or use of the motor-driven vehicle or equipment and cause of the plaintiff’s injuries. The Texas Supreme Court has “described the threshold as something more than actual cause but less than proximate cause.” The necessary causal nexus requires a showing that the use of the vehicle actually caused the injury. Deputy Lopez testified that a vehicle going far below the speed limit poses a hazard to vehicles traveling behind it. The police crash report notes witnesses stated it was Deputy Lopez’s drastic reduction in speed which caused following traffic to have to take evasive measures. Taking the pleadings in a light most favorable to the non-movants, the court held the evidence in this case raises a fact question about whether Deputy Lopez’s operation or use of his vehicle was “directly, causally linked to the accident and the damages sustained.” The court next considered whether Deputy Lopez possessed official immunity. Such immunity is governed by the needs/risk analysis. The court agreed Deputy Lopez was performing a discretionary duty in choosing to pursue the perceived traffic violation. However, Webb County did not conclusively establish that a reasonably prudent officer could have determined Deputy Lopez’s actions were justified under these circumstances. There was no detailed analysis of the need for immediate apprehension vs the risks related to the U-turn at that point and in that manner. Finally, as to the County’s assertion under the emergency responder exception, routine traffic stops were not listed as emergency calls in the department manual, Deputy Lopez did not activate his lights or siren, he did not call dispatch to notify the situation was an emergency, and nothing indicates there was an immediate need to pull in front of oncoming traffic as opposed to waiting for traffic to be more cleared or by activating lights/sirens. The plea was properly denied.
If you would like to read this opinion click here. Panel consists of Chief Justice Marion, Justice Martinez, Justice Watkins. Opinion by Justice Watkins.